"Most of the researchers let's games of chess themselves.
I always had my games in front of the Universe."
 
Sir Fred Hoyle, an uppercut ! in the Big bang !

Cocorico !

 

Sir Fred Hoyle

The astrophysicist who rejects the Big-Bang.

While the thesis of Big-bang is supported by the majority of the astronomers, an original English astrophysicist, Sir Fred Hoyle, always defended the controversial idea that the Universe does not arise from a hypothetical "explosion". But that on the contrary it would keep permanently the same state by a process of continuous creation of matter.

Fred Hoyle was born in Birgley (Yorkshire in northern England) , He died on August 20th, 2001. University graduate of Cambridge (physics). Military service in the navy takes part in the development of the radar during the war. Career to Cambridge, at first as Lecturer in mathematics, then as professor of astronomy and experimental sciences. He leaves the university in 1972 after some altercations with his colleagues.

His greater claims to fame is to have deserved, three times, the Nobel prize of physics.

  • At first for his works in 1950 in association with Willy Fowler and with the couple Margaret and Geoffrey Burbidge on the heavy elements nucleosynthesis in stars. But the price was only attributed in 1983 only to Fowler.

  • In 1952, he was interested by the carbon synthesis in the universe, the base of the chemistry of the life. He showed that the fashionable model was incomplete, and that the carbon 12 had to possess a particular incited level. He spoke about it to Fowler who sought this level with the accelerator of Berkeley, and found it within fortnight! The chemistry of the life in the universe had been born!

  • In 1939 he had already predicted that the hydrogen largely had to exist in the space in the form of molecular hydrogen, result of the association of two atoms. taken back in 1955, in association with Bondi, this hypothesis was coolly welcomed, and rejected. Afterward these molecular clouds were widely confirmed.

In Cambridge, his bitter irony, towards his colleagues, and nevertheless "friends", made him famous to have invented "Big Bang". We cannot speak about Fred Hoyle without evoking effectively the cosmological theories which were the object of sometimes "turbulent" debates in the astronomical and astrophysical microcosm and which spattered in the public. He is doubtless one of the rare astrophysicists to reject) the theory which has today the favour of the majority.

In its astrophysicist's activities, it is necessary to add as well as, during his military service made in the navy during the war, he took part in the development of the RADAR. This experience was able to give him the sense of experimental reality. It is this peculiarity which makes the difference between the qualities of an engineer and those of a theorist, but which here are gathered here in a single man.

His practical mind does not have prevent him from dreaming. And it is for the honor. He did not hesitate to draft science fiction novels into which he inserts original cosmological concepts. We would not certainly swear that he had the qualities of a big novelist. But it shows that he had a fertile imagination.

"After long debates, I savor the moments

when the Universe behaves, as it owes."

 

BIG-BANG MODEL

ANSWER OF HOYLE

 Centaurus A (Source ESO)

According to the much debated Hoyle's theory, the Universe is in perpetual creation during local explosions, mainly in the center of the galaxies of which we see as above residues.

1

The Universe was born 13 billion years ago from a gigantic explosion; since, it is expanding

The Universe did not build up itself during a mythical event : it is permanently fed by new matter.

2

The 2.7 K Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), is a witness of the Universe, just after Big-Bang.

The Big-bang theory cannot predict the current temperature of the CMB, which is of quite another origin.

3

The abundance of the light elements pleads for Big Bang.

In fact, the model of Big-bang predicted nothing of the whole.

Comments

  1. Certain recent observations are disturbing :

  1. We observed "cosmological" quasars the content of which in heavy elements (iron) agrees very badly with the distance, thus with the supposed age, of these objects.

  2. Some Clusters have stars of which ages would be incompatible with the age of the universe.

  3. INTEGRAL and XMM shows completely surprising phenomena of considerable ejection of relativist plasmas directly since the black hole of our galaxy. These observations would seem to show that phenomena of primordial nucleosynthesis would take place at present.

  1. About the no-predictivity of Big Bang on the CMB at 2,7 K, it is necessary to recognize that Gamov always made mistakes in his predictions. (10 to 50 k). We can add that all alternate models always gave much better results and, contrary to the legend, well before those of Gamov. Hoyle proposed a possible interpretation of the CMB: it would be issued in all the directions of the space by tiny needle-shaped of iron thrown during explosions of supernovae. He asserted being capable of calculating the temperature of the background radiation. Observations in infrared, and the analysis of the residues of the explosion of the Supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud in 1987, maybe could agree with these propositions.

  2. If nucleosynthesis is permanent, what the "predictions" of Big Bang becomes? Fred Hoyle would then have been right without and before XMM / INTEGRAL.

 

FRED HOYLE'S SUCCESS

HIS FAILURES



 

1940

Hoyle asserts that the molecular hydrogen is spread in the space. The scientific circles grant no credit to this proposition. Later this prediction was verified. Since, more than hundred of even more complex molecules were detected in the form of organic molecules.

1940

The sun crown is several million degrees warmer than the underlying surface. Hoyle claims that it is due to the bombardment by gaseous ions. Since the thesis of the turbulent MHD origin was admitted.


Willy Fowler

 

1953

Hoyle considers that the carbon cannot be synthetized without the existence of an unknown level of energy. Willy Fowler identifies the providential level in its laboratory, but only Fowler received the Nobel prize in 1983. Big scandal.

Years 1940

Fred Hoyle and R. Littleton asserts that the variable brightness Cepheid stars, are double stars. Each periodically eclipsing the other. Hoyle allowed to have made a mistake: they are simple pulsating stars.


The comet Halley seen by Giotto

To know more about it:
Springtime Comet Fever

1986

Hoyle predicts that the core of comet Halley is black.

The Giotto mission effectively showed that Comet Halley is endowed with a black core covered with organic matter as Hoyle had predicted.

1985

Discovery of a Jurassic bird fossil of the, the Archeopteryx. Hoyle assures that it is a forgery.

To know more about Sir Fred Hoyle:

  1. Bruce Medalist
  2. Fred Hoyle Interviewed by Brig Klyce
  3. Météorites Martiennes

  4. Le Mystère ALH84001

  5. La quête des Viking

  6. Nanobactéries: au delà du micron

  7. Exobiologie  (Jean-Marc Massé)

  8. Life comes from space because life comes from life

 

Last release: 24/05/15

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