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Some elementary physics Earth Magnetism A Supraconductive Inner Core Cocorico !

A very warm superconductive

Snag ?

Some reminders about Superconductors

The Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes of the Leiden University observed in 1911 for the first time the phenomenon of supraconductivity in the mercury in the temperature of 4 K. He obtained the 1913 Nobel prize for this work.
Afterward we discovered that numerous materials could present this phenomenon, but always to close temperatures of the absolute zero.
It is only in 1966 that superconductive materials at high temperature (30 K) were discovered by Alex Müller and Georg Bednorz. (Curiously in a normally insulating ceramic).
The record of 138 K is today held by a compound of thallium, including some mercury and a cuprate (Barium, Calcium, Copper and Oxygen).
If this compound is subjected to a pressure of at least 300.000 atmospheres, the temperature of supraconductivity of this material rises then to about 168 K. (Ron Goldfarb of the National Institute of Standards and technologie).

Some Properties of Superconductors.
  1. Generally the supraconductivity appears to temperatures close to the absolute zero.

  2. Resistivity of a superconductor = 0.

  3. Superconductors lose their property of supraconductivity if a too intense magnetic field is applied to them.

  4. Certain superconductive materials see their temperature of supraconductivity increasing if we apply them very strong pressures.

Hypothesis of Supraconductivity of the Inner Core
Source of the picture unknown

In the centre of the earth, the Inner Core presents the following characteristics:

  1. It has a temperature of 5000° C.

  2. It would be a nickel and iron compound (Ferro-Nickel).

  3. In spite of the temperature, under the influence of the pressure the Inner Core is solid.

 

 

avec :

  • R in Ohm (Ω)

  • ρ in Ohm.meters

  • l in meters

  • S in meters²

 

  Outer
Core
Outer
Core
T (°C) 3665 5000°C
R (Ω) 0,15282 0
P (Watt) 6,11.1017 0

Remark :
If the pressure exercised, on the Outer Core by the Crust and the Upper Mantle, was sufficient, the Outer Core would also be solid. It would become confused physically with the Inner Core. The change of phase would not exist. There would be then continuity of temperature and resistivity variations.

Problem :
If the steelworkers know how to heat the iron until 3000 ° C, nobody knows how to, in this temperature, measure the resistivity, and this for a very simple reason, no tank and no electrode other than made wih carbon can resist to it. But the iron is very quickly polluted by this last one and becomes then a cast iron or steel. All the measurements of resistivity are thus falsified.

Adopted solution :
The only metal on which we know how to make measurements of resistivity ρ in (Ohm.mètre), in very high temperatures, is the Tungsten. To pull us through and knowing that the resistivity of a metal increases linearly according to the temperature, We shall make a linear extrapolation for the unknown values, as well for the Tungstène as for the Ferro-Nickel. The found values should not bring about too serious errors..

ρ at

25°C 3665°C (# Outer Core) 5000°C (Inner Core)

Tungsten

56,5.10-9

1170.10-9

1578.10-9

Ferro-Nickel

738.10-9

15282.10-9

20664.10-9 (=0)
Mercury

958.10-9

   
  1. The resistivity of the mercury appears, to show that a metal in liquid phase can have a resistivity equivalent to that of a metal in solid phase. By analogy, it allows us to validate the resistivity of Ferro-Nickel in 4000°C in the Outer Core.
    If we make the hypothesis that the atomic configuration of the Inner Core would be that of a crystal the structure of which, in spite of the temperature, would confer it the properties of a Superconductor, then the resistivity and thus the internal resistance R of it would be R=0.
    Therefore, the resistance of the Outer Core would be short-circuited by that of the Inner Core, and would play no significant role in the Earth magnetism.

  2. The fact that Earth magnetism is 90 % dipolar pleads in favour of this hypothesis. The residual 10 % of "mustaches" would be owed only by the turbulent movements of convection in the Outer core and would be only second-class phenomena. These turbulences would only be a weak fraction of the magnetic field generated from the Inner Core.

In the opposite table we made the calculation of the Resistances and the dissipated Energies for a current of 2 billion amperes in the Outer Core and in the Inner Core. We see that if the generator of the Earth magnetic field is in the Outer Core, the power Consumption is then colossal, that is incompatible with the durability of the Earth rotation.

  1. It is clear that, in conditions of absence of resistivity, the gain G in the feedback loop is G≥1.

  2. The problem of the permanence during time is so resolved.

  3. It remains to resolve the problem of the inversions of the magnetic field.

Sun eruption seen by SOHO

We know that a superconductor loses its supraconductive properties if a too important magnetic field crosses it.

There are three possibilities:

  1. An important disturbance convective in the Outer Core which would add its own field to the magnetic field of the Inner Core.

  2. An exceptional solar eruption inducing towards the earth a very important magnetic field.
    We would so have a more or less long period of absence of geomagnetism.
    From the disappearance of this disturbance, the supraconductivity of the Inner Core would reappear. The Earth magnetic field would be start again and oriented in a direction or the other one according to the sun magnetic field. (This latter change of direction every 11 years).

  3. The Inner Core, plunged into the Outer Core of which, if you remind it, the viscosity is that of the water, has important degrees of freedom. Thus it can, for simple mechanics reasons (convection in the Outer core and Coriolis forces), revolve and straighten up. Then this leads the movement of the poles, Thus the variation of the observed magnetic declination and, in the extreme cases, the reversal of the poles.
    Note that the plan of rotation of the electric current is imposed by the crystalline structure of the Inner Core. Thus the electric plan follows the movements of the Inner Core.
    It would be possible to verify this hypothesis by observing the physical evolution of the positions of the anisotropies of the Inner Core, noticed by seismography, in correlation with the evolution of the magnetic declination.
    This observation seems very difficult to realize.
    Let us note that if this correlation was confirmed, then the hypothesis of the magnetism of the inner core and its supraconductivity would be strongly validated.

 
Anisotropy of the Inner Core
Anisotropie de la graine
 
Anisotropy of the Inner Core
Anisotropie de la graine
Remarks and Conclusions
  • We cannot extrapolate this phenomenon to all the planets of the solar system. Some do not seem to have magnetic field, some others have a very weak one. Some, especially the giant planets perform the internal conditions of mass and temperature to have a supraconductive Inner Core.
    Today it is allowed that Jupiter has a solid core. But is it superconductive, or is there a superconductive inner Core?
    http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2008/11/25_core.shtml

  • The magnetism and the physics of the sun are too complex to can directly extrapolate to it and without precautions these hypotheses. However we can note that in the sun also exists a gazeous core. But is there also a superconductive Inner Core?
    On this subject see following pages:

  1. coincidences_etranges_01_uk.html

  2. coincidences_etranges_02_uk.html

  • Experiments are necessary to verify if certain materials become superconductive, in high temperature and in very high pressures. It does not seem that Diamond-anvils allow at present to obtain the pressure and the temperature which reign in the Earth Inner Core. However there is here also a bias, it is that the diamond is carbon, and thus it would be difficult to don't pollute the ferro-nickel sample.  Thus it is necessary to hope for a decisive technological progress in this domain.

 
Last News
 
Remerciements à Monsieur Georges Hoynant Thanks  §
To Dr. Georges Hoynant (SAF) who, by his competence in the field of the iron industry and the fireproof materials, helped us a lot during elaboration of these pages concerning the terrestrial inner core.
Dr. Georges Hoynant died in January, 2012.
He was member of the French Astrnomical Society (Cosmology committee).

To Misses Hoynant, his wife, who gave us this photography and authorized us to publish it here.
 
Bibliography
and
Documents
  1. La Supraconductivité. (Futura Sciences)
  2. Les supraconducteurs et leurs applications
  3. The Diamond-Anvil Cell
  4. La cellule à enclume de diamant
  5. Composition chimique globale de la Terre
  6. Earth Core Formation and Composition: New Constraints from High-Pressure Experiments (03/05/2010)
  7. Etude sismologique du noyau terrestre
  8. Dynamique de la cristallisation de la graine : expériences et modèles

Creation date: 10/03/2007
Last release
: 11/03/15 

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