The maximums of the distribution curve of the redshifts,
obtained by G. Burbidge, closely coincide with the values
calculated by K.G. Karlsson.
consequence, when Halton Arp gives values of redshift for those quasars
associated with a galaxy, , he takes into account the law of Karlsson and
he makes a correction to take into account the parent galaxy's proper
motion. So he hereby eliminates the inherent bias in the measurement of
these systems of objects.
It is no more than Numerology!
Certainly, this law of Karlsson is empirical.
But is it necessary to recall that physics is full of laws established
empirically at first,and justified only much later?
They are artefacts!
The observations are statements which were
realized, by experienced astronomers, without prejudging interpretations
which could be made. Arp, Burbidge or Karlsson are not specifically the
authors of these statements.
It is a selection effect !
Yes, there is a selection effect. But this
selection is justified by the nature of the observed quasars. Quasars
which obey the law of K.G. Karlsson, have or would have a physical and/or
historic connection with a " parent galaxy" (bridges of matter,
alignments). This is what
justifies the numerical corrections of Halton Arp
on redshifts. The corrections are taken, by some as errors, but
this is only the elimination of a bias of observation.
If we do not select, and thus make no corrections, then of course the
quantification disappears, and a bias is produced by the statistical
integration of all the data. Here is one of the causes of the
incomprehension of Halton Arp by the upholders of the orthodoxy.
That does not agree with the Big Bang !
Who knows all the physical laws of the Big
The theory of Big Bang is not an eternal truth. One day, we shall have
to take into account all the observations, even those which disturb.
New observations : §
These observations realized more recently, on a
bigger number of quasars, do not show this law of Karlsson. As a
consequence it would be logical to think that it would be due only by
an artefact provoked by an insufficient sampling of the number of
quasars. It is what is allowed by a majority of astrophysicists today.
Let us look at this closer :
When Karlsson, Burbidge
and others make their observations, they make them on the first
quasars which were discovered, that is on the most brilliant.
In other words on those which are the most close
to the solar system, that is on the first slice of our universe. And
there they find this periodicity.
observations show nothing. Why?
But simply because
quasars, even if they are subjected to the law
of Karlsson, are also subdued, you should not forget it, to the
To distinguish these two
effects is totally impossible considering the state of our techniques.
Therefore the good faith of all the observers is not in question.
Thus we can suppose that if we could measure the physical distance of
quasars, without using the redshift method, we would find the law of
Karlsson for every slice of our universe.