While measuring rotational speeds of galaxies, astronomers perceived very quickly a flagrant systematic anomaly:
galaxies don't turn as they should. They turn in almost constant speeds, in other words, rotational speeds are too
rapid at the periphery of galaxies, as compared to what they should be
according to the universal gravitation laws. (Let us note that we could
assert as well the opposite, Has knowledge that the speed of rotation is
insufficient towards the centre of the galaxies)
This suggests the existence
of an invisible heavy matter, the black matter, distributed in a halo
surrounding galaxies, and representative more than 90% of the total mass
of the galaxy. The graph opposite shows that.
Or even of a modification
of the universal gravitation laws at weak intensities, which means in big
In the figure opposite, the green dotted curve shows the rotation speed of
the disc D, The black dotted curve represent the rotation
speed of the bulb B.
Plots, in form of
red pictograms, are
measurements of the speed of the gas (atomic Hydrogen) in and near the
- Curve of rotation "observed" of NGC 2403
(pictograms) and curves of rotation of the individual massive components
Source: Begeman (1987).
- Rotation curves "observed" on NGC 5033
(pictograms) and rotation curves of the individual massive components
- Rotation curves "observed" on NGC 5371
(pictograms) and rotation curves of the individual massive components (lines).
As we can notice, it seems that in all galaxies the gas
component has always a rotation curve different from that of the disc.
Notice also that to explain it we always require a "halo"
constituted by a hypothetical "black matter".
|Why do we measure
different speeds of rotation for the different components of the
galaxy? And more particularly as regards the disc and
Is it allowed, from the point
of view of the physics, to add, by slices of distances, the speeds of
these components and to make the averages?
- The first object is the disc which is constituted of
massive objects (stars, planets, dust, etc.)
- The second object is the gas made of atomic hydrogen
having weak density, which is detected only because it is ionized
and so partially but lesser, of molecular Hydrogen and Helium
What is the physical difference which could explain their individual
speeds of rotation?
Both are sensitive to the universal gravitation.
But the gas, contrary to the disc, is extremely little
dense, and as it is ionized, it is
very sensitive to the global magnetic field of the galaxy!
This last one would be very weak, of the order of 0,8 µG.
But it is distributed in the whole of the galaxy and even beyond.
That is in large-scale, its influence on the
gas becomes dominant compared with that of the gravitation.
The rotation curve of the gas is not a serious indicator of the
speed of rotation of the galaxies.
On the other hand, the rotation curve of the gas
is a good indicator of the presence of a large-scale
galactic magnetic field.
Adding the speeds of the galactic components, to make it averages,
is a grave conceptual fault. It is the physical error which means
to make the average of the speed of a steam engine with the speed
of the smoke belched out by its fireplace.
We do not need black matter to explain the rotation speed
of the galaxies.
And in clusters of galaxies?
In every clusters of galaxies we observe gravitational lenses. These
reveal us the presence of distant objects from which the light is
deflected (in a sense
refracted) by the mass
of the cluster.
The calculation (relativity) allows to go back up
to the mass of the cluster. But the mass so calculated is much
superior to the mass obtained by the sum of all the objects observed
in the cluster.
This conflict seems be able to be explained by the
existence of a black matter Or still by a modification of the laws of
the universal gravitation in weak intensity, that is in big scales (MOND).
The"Chandra X-Ray Observatory" gave us numerous
images og galaxy clusters.
Abell 1689 is a good example. We see that this cluster of galaxies is
inside a colossal cloud of gas. This one is excited by the light of
the galaxies. It is thus ionized.
But is it
influenced, for all that, by a magnetic field ?
Yes, it is indeed what appears according to
certain observations. (Magnetic
Fields in Galaxy Clusters). And these magnetic fields
have a typical value of 1 µG.
But then in this case, the black matter that some believe to have
revealed in clusters, would be, there also, only an error of
It would be necessary to explain how are produced
the gravitational lenses.
But are they
Could not involve lenses of
? The cloud of gas of the cluster would be rather dense to make us
this joke ? Or more simply, in this scale, that would not be the
density which would be important, but rather the number of atoms of
gas which the light would meet in its trajectory.
Or still this
famous magnetic field, for which we look, which would divert the
The "Dark Matter Core Defies Explanation" in the image of
Abell 520 published by the
HST on March 2nd, 2012.
would it be here also about a ionized heap of gas inside a magnetic
On April 18th, 2012, the ESO
publishes, under the title: "Serious
Blow to Dark Matter Theories?", the observations made
around the Sun and in the galaxy, by a team of astronomers in Chile,
which showed that the theory of the black matter don't agree to the
We can thus suppose that the attempts of
detection, in a direct way, of black matter particles on Earth risk
very probably to bring no result.
It is the most precise study
never realized on the movements of stars in the Milky Way. It found no
proof of the presence of black matter in
a relatively big zone around the Sun.
On September 24th, 2012, the NASA
publishes the X Ray observation, made by Dr Anjali Gupta et al with
Chandra Observatory, under the title: "NASA's
Chandra Shows Milky Way is Surrounded by Halo of Hot Gas".
This observation shows, once again, that it is better to trust
observations rather than simulations.
Other observations of this
kind made on other galaxies or clusters of galaxies could eliminate
definitively the hypotheses of "black matter" and
Would our Galaxy be an unique case, an exceptional case?
The Dark Matter Myth - Magnetic Fields and Galactic Rotation Curves
SPH simulations of magnetic fields in galaxy clusters (Dolag K.
Bartelmann M. Lesch H.)
The rotation curve of spiral galaxies and its cosmological
implications (It's a PS
file which we can read with Ghostscript or convert in PDF
format with Adobe Acrobat
Birth Control for Stars
Anchoring Magnetic Field in Turbulent Molecular Clouds
L'Univers des Galaxies - Daniel Benest, Alain Blanchard, Lucie
Bottinelli, Suzy Collin, Claude Froeschlé, Lucienne Gouguenheim, Jean
Lefèvre et Laurent Nottale - Chez
Collection les Fondamentaux.
Hydrodynamique . Physique - Etienne Guyon, Jean-Pierre Hulin et
Luc Petit -
Baryonic Tully-Fischer Relation. (Stacy McGaugh).
IAP-CNRS (Roger Ferlet) A fast history and a summary of the
results of the observations).
Accepted view of Universe challenged by astronomer.
Données de BOOMERanG suggèrent un Univers purement Baryonique
- L'image Astronomique du Jour,
Logarithmic Spirals Isabel and M51. A link which could be
Propriétés et origine des reliques radio dans les amas de galaxies.
arXiv:astro-ph/0308518 v1 28 Aug 2003 - A Dearth of Dark Matter in
Ordinary Elliptical Galaxies. Aaron J. Romanowsky, Nigel G.
Douglas, Magda Arnaboldi, Konrad Kuijken, Michael R. Merrifield, Nicola
R. Napolitano, Massimo Capaccioli, Kenneth C. Freeman.
- June 27th, 2005,
On a retrouvé la matière noire dans les galaxies elliptiques !
But we did not still find the slightest sample of black matter.
Observational Cosmology: caveats and open questions in the standard
model (Martín López-Corredoira
May 11th, 2010, We did not still find the slightest
sample of black matter:
First Dark Matter Results from the XENON100 Experiment.
Early Results from Large Dark Matter Detector Cast Doubt on Earlier
Blow to Dark Matter Theories?
abstract (Source ESO).
""When presented with two possibilities, scientists tend to choose the
wrong one" (HaltonaArp