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A Snag in the Model A Snag in the Black Hole Jets and other Quirks Cocorico !
A Snag in the Academic Model
A galaxy and it's jet (Academic Model)

The Academic Model

This picture, extracted from an artist's view, published by the magazine "Pour La Science" in its number 250 of August 1998. It perfectly corresponds to the present idea that astronomers have of the jets  issued from active galaxies.

M 87 - Source HST

M 87 and its Jet seen by the HST

Here the jet appears in totality. One notices that it is nearly straight. This is frequently so, but not systematic, in this kind of objects. Also note the gradient of brightness of the central region of M 87. This is an important fact.

M87 - Source : ESO

M 87 and its jet seen by the VLT

Here, only the most interior part of the jet is visible. On the other hand, there is the good VLT resolution. This quality permits us to extract all BONES and finally the whole skeleton of M87 !

Digital processing of the picture issued from the VLT:
M 87 - Source : ESO-VLT (DP by B. Lempel)
  • 1st Surprise, an Unexpected Jet Structure.

  1. Two Black Holes ?

  2. A Tore of plasma ?

  3. A jet issued from the tore

  4. The jet in the plane of the tore !

M 87 - Source : ESO-VLT (DP by B. Lempel)
  • 2nd Surprise, an Unexpected object.

  1. A 3rd Black Hole ?

  2. An "accretion disk" separate from the tore.

M 87 - Source : ESO-VLT (DP by B. Lempel)
  • Improvement of the Digital Processing technique.

The picture of the jet, opposite, gotten after modification of the digital processing procedure, allows elimination of some isophots produced by the gradient of brightness of the picture caused by to the gradient of matter density in the core of M 87.

To Know More
Source : NASA
Magnetic interactions Sun / Earth

The global structure of the torus, and of the jet is analogous to  the magnetic environment of the planet Earth:

  1. UCAR
  2. David P. Stern & Mauricio Peredo

Naturally, for the core of M 87, it is on a much larger scale. (Dimensions, energies). As shown in J. Biretta in "Superluminal Motion in the M87 Jet".


 G359.23-0.82 (La Souris)
Source: Chandra - G359.23-0.82 (The Mouse)

Pulsar G359.23-0.82 (PSR J1747-2958)

On September 23rd, 2004, a spectacular confirmation by Chandra of the physical relations, which exist between the stellar winds, the magnetospheres and the jets. (The source of the stellar wind is not visible in the images supplied by Chandra).
This structure is similar to the animation of the Jet of M87 realized by John Biretta.


M87 would be a micro-quasar in our own galaxy.

  • We can explain the apparent superluminal speed of the jet (6c), by ascribing a distance that situates M87 in the milky way (Y.P. Varshni and J. Talbot). It would be then a strange star, an abnormal red shifted micro-quasar. But numerous observations show that this object is indeed an elliptic galaxy situated in the Virgo galaxies cluster. One can also object that the identified micro-quasars morphologies as such are very different from the one of M87.

Indeed M 87 is an elliptic galaxy.

  • The tore is a plasma confined by the magnetic field of the central black hole. (Tokamak).

  • The gravitational and especially magnetic interactions, between two black holes, that, acting on the core of plasma, would generate and would accelerate the jet while focusing it. The major objection to this hypothesis is that these black holes must obey to the dynamics imposed by Keplerian Laws. But the jet pursuing a straight trajectory beyond the 2nd black hole, by more than 5000 al, would not appear to have this shape, but rather a spiral structure (wave density). This is not obviously the case.

  • We can remove this objection by taking account of the following hypotheses and facts:
  1. The central black hole has an axial symmetry. (Kerr Black Hole). It behaves therefore like a quasi-absolute rotational inertial system. its rotational plane can only change extremely slowly. (gyroscope).

  2. Due to equatorial relativistic rotational speed, the lines of force of the magnetic field around the black hole are not axi-polar. They would form a circle around, and in the plane of rotation, of the black hole. This property permits the Tokamak effect.

  3. The magnetic shield size, associated with the 2nd black hole, and the radiation pressure due to the relativistic proton wind, working on the solar sail that constitutes this shield, allows the gravitation force to balance.

  4. The second black hole is trapped in the axis of the jet, as per the Coanda effect (fluid mechanics).

  5. Finally, the systemic dynamics (cybernetics) which appears under the shape of a servomechanism (negative feedback loop) explains how and why this system maintains constant the distance between the two black holes.

Other Jets Partners of Binary Systems:
DP by B. Lempel of an image obtained by the NOAO In the Crab Pulsar.
DP by B. Lempel of an image obtained by the VLT ( ESO) In the Crab Nebula.
DP by B. Lempel from an image obtained by the " Canada France Hawaii Telescope" ( 2003) In the Rosette Nebula


Many jets are associated

  1. To binary systems. (04/02/1992)

  2. With the presence of magnetospheres.

  3. With the existence of a wind of warm particles issued from one of the two objects in the direction of the second.

Alternated periodic jets
Source : B. Lempel
Animation, format  ZIP
(B. Lempel - 39 Ko)

The animation, opposite, that one can visualize by clicking on the picture, shows what would happen if the described above kinematics were not active. The Laws of Kepler would inexorably apply in all their rigor, and the Jet would then apprar alternately, in two opposite locations, in the plane of rotation of the second black hole. It is necessary however, to correct this simulation noting, causing, (as we will later see), to the galaxy to evolve, either to a spiral galaxy shape, or to a barred spiral, according to the value of this tangential speed, and also according to the possible variation of the orbit perihelion. (NGC 1512). One can consider that periodic alternating jets are a mere speculation.

This situation appears only if the  center of gravity of these two objects, is not inside one of them, that is for objects having masses of the same order.

We could think that the existence of alternated periodic jets is a pure speculation. In fact, the  Chandra satellite discovered, in X radiation, the Micro-Quasar XTE J 1550-564 which  presents exactly this peculiarity.

This phenomenon was indeed confirmed on February 28th, 2006 by the ESA as a result of the observation of the pulsar PSR B1259-63 which is in rotation around the star SS 2883 (Be Star).

Documentation & Bibliography:

  1. "Gradients de luminosites dans le cœur de M87" Bernard Lempel (PDF = 810 ko).

  2. "Cinématique dans le Cœur de M 87" Bernard Lempel (PDF = 406 Ko).

  3. Jets et Systèmes binaires - Bernard Lempel. L'Astronomie Vol 117 - Sept 2003. SAF (PDF=1,6 Mo).
    The same, Jets and binary Systems - B. Lempel, but translated from French) (PDF, 588 Ko)  New  

  4. Le pulsar du Crabe, Faits et Contradictions. (French)   New

  5. "Quasars; a supermassive rotating toroidal black hole interpretation" R.J. Spivey (A Toroïdal model of Kerr Black Hole likely, but incomplete on the point of view of magnetism).

  6. "Le Trou Noir de Kerr Revisité" Bernard Lempel (PDF = 210 Ko).

  7. Animation format MPEG (1,25 Mo - Source : John Biretta, STScl, 1999).

  8. On the Cybernetics: "La Construction des Machines Automatiques" - R. Prudhomme, (Ancient professor in the CNAM) Editions Gauthier-Villars, Collection Information et Cybernétique - 1964 - Paris (Unobtainable because out of print) To consult it to try the French Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris.

  9. First computations of the orbits in a Binary Black Hole System - E. Gourgoulhon, P. Grandclément. (Paris-Meudon Observatory ).

  10.  Binary black holes in circular orbits. I. A global spacetime approach - E. Gourgoulhon, P. Grandclément.

  11. Binary black holes in circular orbits. II. Numerical methods and first results - E. Gourgoulhon, P. Grandclément.

  12. Là où les électrons deviennent relativistes. (La Recherche N° 360 - January 2003).

  13. Cluster, Explosions, Plasmoids, Ion Beams - Report on 7th Cluster Workshop (ESA Mar-15-2004)  The mechanism of the relativist jets observed

  14. Modèles d'avalanche des sous-orages géomagnétiques. (GRPS)  and finally explained ?

  15. The Mouse that soared G359.23-0.82: A magnificent confirmation of the structure and the mechanism of the jets (stellar wind + Magnétosphere + Jet).

  16. "Deep impact" of pulsar around companion star (ESA - 28 February 2006).

  17. TeV gamma rays from the Binary Pulsar PSR B1259-63 (April 2005).

  18. Discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR B1259−63 in Very-High-Energy Gamma Rays around Periastron with H.E.S.S.

  19. XMM-Newton observations of PSR B1259–63 near the 2004 periastron passage

  20. Cannibal stars like their food hot, XMM-Newton reveals (ESA March 2006)

  21. Connect the Sun to stars : towards a solution of the sun magnetic enigma ? (CNRS - INSU).


  Dernière mise à jour: 17/05/16 

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