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Odd, a Snag in the Bar Cocorico !

NGC 1512 - Source: HST, NASA, ESA, and D. Maoz (Tel-Aviv University and Columbia University)

This photograph of the galaxy resembles greatly to ESO 269-57. As soon as it was shown to me, I had, not only an impression of "already seen", but I also felt an intense excitement. It is an incomplete mosaic. But the quality of it is remarkable. The core of the galaxy is unusually not saturated. And the resolution is excellent.


Center of NGC  1512

Commentary from HST :

 The NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped this wide view of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512. A wispy bar of material can barely be seen slicing vertically through the galaxy. The bar is funneling gas to the heart of the galaxy, fueling a ring of star birth. Blue-colored stars along the galaxy's outer edge trace the grand spiral arms.

The commentary of the HST is not very convincing. It leaves me puzzled. This galaxy has something strange that an experienced eye immediately discerns. It is a spiral, and this is not a spiral. It is a barred galaxy, and it is not a barred galaxy. The bar is diffuse. The core is a spiral, but it is completely disconnected from the " big external spiral. A circular luminous crown surrounds it all. One could conjecture, and one is right to think that a small spiral galaxy crosses, or crossed, another galaxy and what we observe is the result of this "collision". But is this scenario better than the one given by the HST ? It is this doubt that had disturbed me. It was necessary that I find what provoked in me this problem. So I processed this picture as I had for the others.

Digital Processed picture

Now, it is clearer. The bar could be, as for ESO 269-57, ejected matter from the core of the galaxy. And this core has the shape of a spiral. At the visible extremity of the bar, matter disperses itself in big curls while forming the outside crown of the galaxy. These curls are the origin of an intense activity of star formation. This observation bodes ill for the theory of the mechanism of formation of spirals arms and bars in galaxies.(gravitational resonance waves). It could also contradict the evolutionary theory of galaxies suggested by the Hubble Diagram, below. Still explained are the mechanism of the central spiral, the mechanism of the symmetrical ejection that permits the formation of the bar and the outside crown. And to explain from where comes the ejected matter.

High resolution Digital Processed Picture (507 Ko)


  Opposite on the left, the Hubble classification of galaxies.


Hypotheses on Mechanisms of Formation and Evolution

Let's examine this galaxy starting from the core of NGC 1512. Then let's move away, while going outwards.

QSM Effect (Animation)

Animation HR

  • The Core.

While taking the model of M 87, we suppose, here also that we have two Black Holes, T0 and T1, that the mechanism of the mass ejection (Jet) induced by the gravitational and magnetic interactions between these two black holes and a Tore of Plasma are active, but that these ejections are insufficient to permit the capture of T1 by the Jet of matter issued from T0. The trajectories of the two black holes obey the laws of Kepler. Therefore they are ellipses. When T0 and T1 are closest, the Quantity and the Speed of mass ejection are Maximum. (Let's call this effect QSM to simplify). It occurs in opposite points of the two ellipses, which are centered with respect to the center of gravity of the two black holes.

QSM effect
(Without rotation of the perihelion)


  • The Internal Spiral. Formation of the ring of the bar and evolution.
  1. Because of the dual rotation of T0 and T1, the two jets take then inevitably, while moving away, the shape of spirals. This generates two symmetrical waves of mass, by rotary ejections. As the QSM always occurs at the same place, the global ejection of matter is not homogeneous.

  2. Little by little, the ejected matter, is slowed down due to the effect of viscosity. At every half rotation, a wave of mass linked with a spiral arm, strikes against the previously ejected mass. Thus is formed the interior ring. Because of distances and the delay in spreading of the mass, there is a space-time lag between the axes of the spiral jets, the axis of the QSM and the axis of barses, that entails some visible geometric shifts. (Particularly, angular rotations and relative axis of projection).

  3. If the axis of the ellipse undergoes a very slow rotation, (variation of the perihelion) the zone of QSM moves then very slowly over the time. This has important consequences on the interior ring and consequently on the bar. (Thickening of it and slow rotation).

The Stars Birth..

The inside ring has an excess of mass, where the QSM is present. It is also the site where one observes the greater part of star birth. The bar is also born there. But one can perfectly consider that if these stars show such a burst, and if they seem young it could only be due to the "young" mass contribution of the central coiled jet. The apparent age and the burst of stars would then be completely misleading, as these contributions of mass are mainly hydrogen, and therefore the metallicity would be distorted by it. (too weak metallicity)

Birth and evolution of the Bar.

The interior ring behaves like a reservoir of matter that, under the action of the inside spiral jet, ends up "overflowing". This is where the differential pressure is maximum, and therefore beyond the QSM. Thus is made the bar. And it turns slowly with the displacement of the QSM (due to the rotation of the perihelion of the big axis of rotation of the black holes.) The bar is therefore the sum of a set of radial bars of successive ejections.

The Outside ring
and Outside stars birth.

Mass ejected via the bar, as for the inside spiral, stumbles against older ejected mass. It deposits itself therefore under the shape of an outside ring while also forming there, by shock effect, a star nursery area. The ring reinforces itself thus over time and ends up forming gigantic galactic arms. Here also these newborn stars must also, have a metallicity polluted by gas brought by the bar. But here it would not be surprising that this gas is polluted by matter enriched in heavy elements brought from the interior ring. Also the apparent age of these stars would be misleading. (too strong metallicity)

Core of M 87

This picture shows us that the accretion of matter takes place, according to the polar axes, toward the black hole; but that some matter is also ejected outwards according to the equatorial plan, toward the core, and according to the plan of the tore while forming a Jet. This process suggests strongly a mechanism of matter retraining.


  1. The structure of the galaxies do not depend on their age.

  2. The structure of galaxies depends for the main thing on the presence of an interaction beetwen black holes in their cores. It also depends on the manner in which mass is ejected from the core and on the coefficient of viscosity of the surroundings.

  3. Measurement of the star ages in galaxies can be completely distorted by the contribution of material issued from the cores of these galaxies. The observed spectrograms, don't have a significance therefore if one doesn't do the required corrections. This is especially true if the galaxy is faraway, because there one only makes some average measurement on the most luminous areas, the core in general, which is itself enriched with "primeval elements", as shown previously !

  4. The Core of M 87 shows us also how matter is recycled in galaxies. Thus, one is led to an evolutionary general model of galaxies: a "Systemic Model".

  5. Galaxies don't have any age, since they permanently recycle the mass.

  6. It is necessary to consider therefore that the Nucleosynthesis, that some qualifies of "primeval", be in fact continuous.

  7. Were these observations to be confirmed, by other means, the notion of "big-bang" would then be questioned seriously.

  8. Also note that it would shed doubt on the "Quasi Steady State Universe" model proposed by Fred Hoyle, Narlikar & Burbidge. This model evokes the sporadic creation of matter, from nothing, that renders it just as suspicious as the big-bang.

All these effects are perfectly visible in the High Resolution Digital Processed image.



  1. Des galaxies géantes de 1000 milliards de masses solaires un milliard d’années après le Big Bang (z > 4) (Source: Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris - March, 2004). A confirmation of forming problems of the galaxies.

Creation date : 03/??/2004
Last release: 03/20/16
The Warped Bone :