How to sell a used Star as a new one.

Recipe: Fabricate your own Quasar

Jacques Moret-Bailly gives us the following recipe :

Worn-Out Old Star



  • A worn-out old star (diameter 10 km.), still having the mass of the sun.

    • A hydrogen cloud; dirty ? That’s fine.

    • A go-between: it excites the hydrogen, which urges a couple of light rays to kiss, then they go on their way as if nothing had happened. But the visible light ray has reddened, while the thermal ray feels warm.


Source: Chandra


Put the star in a cloud. She is all bucked up, swallowing the hydrogen which shatters on her, heating her up to more than 1 000 000 K : she becomes an accretor. Don’t be surprised: the accretors are creatures of theoreticians which have never been seen.
Your star produces x-ray, ultra violet, etc.

And the cloud ?

Arp 105

 the quasar is down
 and to the right of
 the main galaxy.

When it falls on the star, it grows denser than a true atmosphere. When it makes quasi-contact with the star, it is very warm, its atoms ionize with gusto, plus hydrogen, and also some pretty emission lines from the impurities… A little farther away, the atomic hydrogen, which is excited, reddens the light that crosses it so fast that the spectral lines don’t have time to be emitted or absorbed visibly.
Farther away, in fact much farther away, the hydrogen is still atomic but too cold to be excited. But the go-between is on the lookout : the absorption of the “Lyman” lines in the far ultra violet excites the atoms. While reddening, the light sweeps away the Lyman frequencies, so that it does not have time to be absorbed visibly. Catastrophe : a ray which has already been registered comes on the main Lyman line (Lya ), the reddening almost stops, all the lines show up in the spectrum, particularly the Lyb line. The reddening resumes until the Lyb line which has just been registered arrives on the Lya; then this process resumes as long as there is enough ultraviolet energy, building up a scale of lines. We call this scale the “Lyman forest”.

Source: P. J. Francis & all. (Ap J., 373, 465-470, 1991)

Look out!

3C 273 (Chandra)


Don’t pick too young a star: it would generate a lot of radio noise which would ionize gases having sufficiently large densities, and you would lose the very largest spectral lines !

How to sell it better


  1. Make it seem enormous: Regarding the multiplets in the spectrum, you will see that the relative frequency variation Dn/n is almost constant. If you wish to make believe that this variation is due to the Doppler effect, say that the “fine-structure constant” is variable. Then hope they will believe you.

  2. Conceal her age: Hide the spectral lines of iron, or justify their presence by an original theory.

  3. Promote the accessory: The cloud generates so much thermal radiation that you can claim that it is full of hot dust.

  4. Make pranks: Redden a small galaxy or another object by contaminating it with ultraviolet light emitted by the quasar, which you will then approach. But keep clear of supernovae: There is so much hydrogen that you would no longer see your quasar.

  5. Etc.

Recipe non-patented.

Plenty of opportunities to have a good time !

...and maybe a few peeves !


Bibiography :

  1. From Jacques Moret Bailly, in your choice:
  1. The site of John Talbot: Y.P. Varshni and J. Talbot (An excellent reference)

  2. Quasar (Wikipedia)



  5. (See below)

Recent observations:


September 9th, 2004 is published a document drafted by a team including :
Pasquale Galianni, E. M. Burbidge, H. Arp, V. Junkkarinen, G. Burbidge et Stefano Zibetti, having the title:
The Discovery of a High Redshift X-Ray Emitting QSO Very Close to the Nucleus of NGC 7319.
This article concerns the galaxy NGC 7319 which is in the Stephan Quintet.
On January 14th, 2005, Pasquale Galianni drew our attention on this remarkable document. All our thanks.

Near the centre of this galaxy, and manifestly overlaying it, was discovered a Quasar. (At the end of the arrow in the image opposite). Tthis Quasar is at the end of a shaped jet of matter, and this jet seems stemming from the core of the galaxy.

Red shift of the Galaxy :
Red shift of the Quasar :


We can also notice, in the image below, that the Quasar is apparently in interaction with the surrounding matter in the galaxy.

Credit: Jane C. Charlton (Penn State) et al., HST, ESA, NASA


This observation is certainly a proof that certain red shift, that we say cosmological, have an origin without any link with a possible expansion of the universe.
The CREIL Effect, applied to Quasars, could give a rational and
"simple" explanation to this phenomenon.


Last release: 03.01.16

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