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Reply to the various criticisms.

Certain criticisms, more or less justified, were given of the ideas expressed in the pages dedicated to the Crab Nebula.
We can group them in three types which we will here analyze.

An excessive JPG compression.

Critics, replies and Snags.

  1. The Digital Processing creates artifacts in the images. It is thus likely that the "bridges between stars" and the observed jets are nothing more than artifacts.

We have already widely answered this contention in the following sections :

  1. Description of DP.

  2. Validation and Limits of the Method.

  3. The Artifacts.

  4. The whole included in a PDF document. (French)

We shall therefore not go back over it.

IC 4601
  1. The images of stars are diffuse in photographic emulsions and in CCD sensors. They are therefore hazy and not precise. In the diffusion zone of two close objects we can have, by addition, a greater luminosity or some colour. Which can appear as a bridge, especially after digital processing.

This is a very strong criticism.

So we proceeded to checks, especially in the Crab nebula images. We processed all pairs of stars having an angular distance of the same order as that between the pulsar and the star to which it seems connected. Mostly we found absolutely no such light scatter. Sometimes we found deformed spots which seemed to correspond well to the diffusion mentioned in the criticism, but rarely by a bridge in the form of a well structured strand. On the other hand, we have numerous photos which, after DP, show filamentous bridges of matter connecting stars separated by long distances. (See both examples opposite).
In these cases there is no diffusion effect.

In the Rosette Nebula


  1. "It is (We quote) public knowledge, since at least a quarter of a century, that there is no gravitational link between the Crab pulsar and the star (Trimble 28) appearing beside it on the picture, as testified by the existence of a great relative movement between the two stars, totally incompatible with the hypothesis of a very long period binary system".

It is an argument which seems convincing.

But which shows that the author of this criticism did not see or understand that there would be the effect of a large-scale optical lens in this region of the Crab nebula. This lens effect biases the measures of distances and therefore of speeds.

Refer to :

  1. The Snag of the Crab.
  2. Effect of Refringence in the Crab.

Let us add that we have never evoked the hypothesis of a long period binary system, but on the contrary we evoked the hypothesis of a small dimension binary system, for which the conventional laws of gravitation are impeded by a hydrodynamics mechanism (Coanda Effect).

S. Wyckoff and C.A. Murray estimated, between 1899 and 1976, the tangential relative speed of the pulsar at 123 km/s. They used seven photographic plates. But if we take into account the lens effect, the speed is less than 1 m/s.
Not having access to these plates, we cannot verify this work. Thus we have to admit its validity, considering the information at their disposal at that time.
If we admit this movement, then there is a very simple explanation of this observation:
The shape and dimension of the gas bubble would change over time, thus inducing modifications of its optical characteristics, and in particular its magnifying power.

A very important physical peculiarity of the Crab nebula is that the totality of the matter contained in it (pulsar and surrounding gas) is insufficient to explain how the star parent was able to explode to a supernova. So, Trimble 28 could be, partially or totally, this missing mass!

Images taken with a 30 years interval.

However there is on Internet a document which should allow us to make some rough measures, and to allow us to draw some useful conclusions.
This motion picture comprises two images taken over 30 years' time.
Observing in this motion picture Trimble 28 and the pulsar, the pulsar seems indeed to move towards the right. (It is necessary to have a trained eye).
We should thus be able to measure, without much difficulty, this movement.

Zoom in the previous motion picture.

To do this we zoomed on this region of the nebula.

And there,
to our surprise, there is a


The movement which we had seen in the large-scale motion picture is only due to a translucent artifact, partially covering on its left the pulsar in one of the images of the motion picture
This effect, thus revealed, allows us to eliminate surely any significant movement of the pulsar and forbids us to make however any measurement. Under these conditions, we cannot assert anything concerning the publication of S. Wyckoff and C.A. Murray.

The artifact


The movement of the pulsar which we had believed to see, is only an unfortunate combination of an ordinary optical illusion due to the human nervous system, which sometimes tends to try to pull the wool over our eyes, and an artifact situated where it should never have been.

In conclusion, over 30 years, in spite of appearances, there is no significant relative movement between Trimble 28 and the Pulsar. This does not exclude a detectable movement over a longer period.

The cause of this artifact could be due to the way the motion picture was made.
The authors would have used the images in the JPG format, thus compressing them more or less.
To produce this motion picture, they would then have converted to the GIF format.
The JPG compression would probably be the source of this artifact.

But is it an artefact indeed?

If we look into the document published by S. Wyckoff and C.A. Murray, we find only one reproduction (Fig. 2) of the seven patches having served to their measurements.
This image seemed of little interest because its bad qualitty. It is only at a recente date that we interested there. We extracted and made on this picture a 90░ clockwise rotation and finally we have inverted it to obtain a positive image.
And finally we compared it to the individual images of the motion picture (Zoom).

This first image extracted from the motion picture has much resemblances with the published image in the document of S. Wyckoff and C.A. Murray (above). Thus we can, rightly, to suppose that it is the same images. The dark clouds occupy the same position towards the Pulsar. Let us note the presence of a dark cloud on the left of the pulsar.

This second extracted images, she too, from the motion picture (Zoom), is not published in the document of S. Wyckoff and C.A. Murray. It corresponds to the evolution, after thirty years, of the immediat environment of the pulsar and its eventuel displacement towards Trimble 28.
And at this moment an advised observer notes, that what we thought to be an artefact, is in reality a partial eclipse of the pulsar by the dark cloud which during thirty years, displaced itself towards the right-hand side.
In this case, the measurements which was made would be in fact the biased measurement of the moving speed of a dark cloud.

But is this image indeed one of the six not published plates as we are entitled to suppose it?

The nature of this dark cloud is unknown for us. But if we admit, with all the astronomers, that a star is punctual, then normally the dark cloud would have only reduce the luminosity of the pulsar and not make an eclipse! (Partial eclipse in this particular case).
We could, indeed on, retort us that the pulsar is observed through a gas diffusing its light. It is possible, but it would come out for a long time with the numerous spectrographies made.
But if it is an eclipse of the pulsar indeed, then we are there in presence of a resolute image of the Crab pulsar.

Conclusion: So our opponent, by wanting to make too perfectly, would so have brought a supplementary proof in favour of our hypotheses.


Proper motion of the Crab pulsar - S. Wyckoff and C.A. Murray.
And still more.


Creation date : 12/17/06
Last release: 05/11/13

 IC 443, The Crack Snag :