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A Snag in the Model A Snag in the Black Hole Jets and other Quirks Cocorico !
Fragmented and twisted Jets
Source Chandra 3C 58 and the Crab Pulsar. (Source : Chandra) It's interesting to make some comparisons between the jets, and especially on certain documents concerning them. To begin let us see jets which present curvatures, even breaks of their trajectories:
The first case is that of the jets stemming from some pulsars :
3C 58 and the Crab Pulsar are good examples.
About these objects, we can consult:
The Snag of the Crab.
Effect of Refringence in the Crab.
A Wandering Snag in the Crab.
Crab Critics and retorts.
J0617 in IC443 (Zoom) The picture of J0617 in IC443 made by Chandra.
J0617 in IC443 (DP by B. Lempel) J0617 (after DP). We can note that the jet of J0617 is not a continuous jet. It appears as successive blobs.
Let us note that the jet is bent and also literally "broken" in certain places.
Note the presence of two or maybe three objects connected by a cloud of gas (in blue).
Terrestrial magnetic field (Source: Cluster)

Is the mechanism of creation of the jets well understood ?

The Cluster Experiment reveals us what happens in the electromagnetic interactions between the Sun and the Earth.

Source: Fabrice Mottaz
Sub  Magnetic Thunderstorm
And what shows us Dr. Fabrice Mottez (Paris-Meudon Observatory) is quite fundamental.
An animation is available in the MPEG format  (Windows Media Player).
We do not know the speed reached by the accelerated particles. Would they be relativist in certain cases? It seems that yes.
If it is about a jet which appears in this way "periodically", far away "would we see" successive blobs? Notice that Mr. Fabrice Mottaz, voluntarily or involuntarily, shows us a jet deviated from the straight line, but not the propagation axis of the of the solar wind particles.
3C 279, (Nature)
Cosmic Jet Engine
A document published on 02/18/2010 in NATURE Vol 463 by Andy Young, describes us the jet stemming from the blazar 3C 279. (Let us note that it is an artist image)
Strange thing, this jet would be bent under the influence of the magnetic field of a "Blob" (gas bubble).
The nature and the properties of this Blob and of this jet leave us perplexed. It is the least that we can say
We shall see later that an other explanation is possible. 
A Displaced Supermassive Black Hole in M87 (Source: HST) Here is, opposite, a document published on May 25th, 2010 in the "Hubble Site"
The associated publication is dated 05/12/2010 :
Science Paper by: D. Batcheldor et al. 2010 (Document PDF)
(Let us note that the original photography was made by the HST in February 1998)

It appears that the "central black hole" of this galaxy is off-centre with regard to the centre of the galaxy.
A Displaced Supermassive Black Hole in M87 (Source: HST)

An object which the authors of the publication called "HST-1", situated in approximately 200 light years of the Black Hole ( BH), seems to be at the origin of this gap.
The report of the distances with the galactic centre (GC) gives us the report of the masses, and allows us to calculate the mass of HST-1:
On our screen,
Between GC and BH, we measure 12 mm.
Between GC and HST-1, we measure 70 mm
And if we admit, for the Black Hole, a value of 3 billions  (Generally admitted value), The calculation gives us for  HST-1 :

masse of HST-1

The mass of HST-1 isn't insignificant.. So it's a second Black Hole.
Note that BH, GC and the centre of HST-1 are not aligned on a straight line, thus the jet of M 87 undergoes a deviation, Why?

 M 87 (VLT)
The jet of energy of M 87 (VLT - First Light)
This photography was made by the VLT during the night from 25 till 26 May 1998 and was published on Internet on May 27th, 1998. It's a "First Light".
M 87 (DP by B. Lempel) Two months later, and after a lot of trial and error, we obtained by digital computing, the image opposite.
And then we noticed that the jet does not originate near the core, but it arises from a tore (plasma?).It neither arise from an accretion disc.
In this image it doesn't appear  an opposite jet.
We can also observe that the jet is deviated from the straight line by a very curious object which we can without too much hesitation considered as HST-1, which would have apparently a magnetic field.
To remember that the jet of M 87 would have a real speed of the order of 0,6c. (Source John Biretta) Even if there are some relativist effects, in this speed it should not prevent the detection of an opposite jet in a different wavelength (Red shifted IR or Radio?). In our knowledge it was never the case for M 87.

  1. The publication of Batcheldor et al. confirm the existence of two massive objects. 

  2. Globally this image looks like a lot that shows us Mr. Fabrice Mottaz. 

  3. A suggestion, HST-1 would have to be called VLT-1 or even something like this.

M 87 (DP by B. Lempel) A short time later, by increasing the digital processing, we obtained the image opposite.
The tore disappeared, but the accretion disc is now visible around the central black hole. (Let us note it hasn't the idealized look which is generally proposed in the models).
A third object, that we shall name VLT-2 appeared. If VLT-2 is in gravitational interaction with both the first ones, maybe we could estimate the relative masses of these three objects, if obviously we know the angular value of the plan of projection under which we see them.
Notice that VLT-2 seems to move towards a close region of the "central black hole" leaving a streak behind him. Could this region be the centre of gravity of the three objects? If VLT-2  moves, where is it today (04/07/2010) ?
Then here are three successive DP of the central region of M 87.
M 87 (DP B. Lempel) M 87 (DP B. Lempel) M 87 (DP B. Lempel)
Now we see what seems to be the disc of accretion. It presents a structure with three arms making angles about 120°, suggesting gravitational resonances, even gravito-acoustic. Let us note that it would seem that the accretion of matter, towards the black hole, is made, in its final phase, according to a polar axis. The disc of accretion, in the plan of the tore, stays far from the black hole.
The disc of accretion and the tore of plasma distinguish themselves clearly one of the other one. The tore and the jet always stay in the same plan.
M 87 (Chandra)
The centre of M 87 (Source : Chandra)
For comparison here is what shows us Chandra, a structure in three arms appears, there also, in the centre of M 87.
Plan of the centre of M 87 (Source : B. Lempel) This plan, opposite, represents the structure of the core of M 87 such as it appears to us now.
The accretion disc (orange) seems to be pushed away by a wind of particles (black arrows) in the equatorial plan defined by the tore of plasma (blue).  The accretion can thus be made only along the polar axis (also defined by the plan of the tore).
The Jet has enough energy to build up to itself a passage through the disc of accrétion. It is then subjected to the magnetic field of the second object and thus diverted according to the angular value of the magnetic axis of this last one (green arrow). It is then only that it is accelerated in "relativistic speed".
If the jet is not relativist when emerging from the tore, the opposite jet if exist, would in neither case be relativist, and we would discover it without any particular difficulty on the other side of the tore. The disc of accretion seems to be pushed away by a wind of particles (black arrows) in the equatorial plan defined by the tore of plasma. The accretion can thus be made only by the polar axis (defined with regard to the plan of the tore).
  1. The "gas blob" of 3C 279 could be much more than a "gas blob". We propose a second black hole, having a magnetic field, as it seems to be the case for M 87.

  2. The most interesting conclusions are in relationship to the curvature of the jets, to the source of the jets and especially to the fact that we can have modes of making jets very different according to objects.

  3. Maybe there isn't an unique model of making collimated jets. In the cases which interest us, it seems that two objects with intense magnetic fields are the main actors. The case of M 87 seems to be the classic example.
    The electromagnetic interactions between the Sun and the Earth appear as the best "terrestrial laboratory" to our arrangement to understand the mechanisms.

  4. The structure of the heart of the galaxy M 87 seems to us a little different from what we expected. It is possible that we are misled by some artefact. We wait for some other observations with a lot of interest.
  1. Jets et Systèmes binaires - Bernard Lempel. L'Astronomie Vol 117 - Sept 2003. SAF (PDF=1,6 Mo).
  2. Connecter le Soleil aux étoiles : vers une solution à l'énigme magnétique solaire ? (CNRS - INSU)
  3. Là où les électrons deviennent relativistes. (La Recherche N° 360 - Janvier 2003)
  4. Evidence for Electron Acceleration up to ~ 300 keV in the Magnetic Reconnection Diffusion Region of Earth's Magnetotail. (M. Fiérotes, R. P. Lin, T. D. Phan, D. E. Larson, and S. D. Bale)
  5. Hubble witnesses spectacular flaring in gas jet from M87's black hole (Publié sur Internet le 14 Avr 2009)
  6. Hubble Space Telescope observations of an extraordinary flare in the M87 jet
  7.   New  (August 22, 2013). Hubble Takes Movies of Space Slinky (We can observe, in VIDEOS, that the luminosity of HST-1 varies periodically, approximately 13 times in 13 years). Artefact?
  8. Optical proper motion measurements of the M87 jet: New results
Creation date: 07/04/2010
Last release: 05/18/16
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