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Galaxy Clusters Galaxies + Quasars Alignments of QSOs QSOs and quantization Cocorico !

Alignments of Galaxies and Quasars


The historical Facts:

In the 1980s is published a book of Halton Arp "Quasars, Redshifts and Controversies", which summarizes the astronomical observations made by the author while he worked at Caltech. He makes, among with others, mention of alignments of Quasars with galaxies.

He will resume and complete his ideas in 1998, in "Seeing Red". Then in 2003, is published his "Catalog of Discordant Redshift Associations".

It is necessary to note that the observations and publications of Arp provoked two debates which are as yet unfinished to day, the first one on the nature of the observed objects, the second on the boycotting of Arp by the community of the astronomers.

We shall examine here only the observations and also some of the arguments advanced by some to dispute them. We shall not go any further.

Some Cases of alignment of Quasars

Arp 220

It is an extremely active galaxy, seen here in X Ray, it presents two peculiarities:

  1. It is connected with a second object (interaction with another galaxy)

  2. It is in the center of an almost symmetric alignment of two quasars.

  Arp 220-1 Arp 220-2 QSO-1 QSO-2


0,018 0.09 1,25 1.25

This geometrical symmetry is is surprising enough, but this symmetry of redshifts is more still. Although the probability to meet this kind of situation is not zero, it is very small.

Arp 220 was subjected to numerous studies:

  1. Arp 220: Chandra Observes Titanic Merger

  2. A Collision In The Heart Of A Galaxy

IC 1767

Another example of symmetric alignment of two radio quasars with a galaxy.
We can also notice here an almost perfect symmetry of the redshifts.


NGC 4325

The central galaxy (object 119) is a galaxy of Seyfert. Aligned on this one we find two X Ray sources, the Quasar (object 119) and BL lac galaxy (object 268).

  NGC 4235 268 119


0,07 0.136 0,334

While the symmetry of redshifts is not perfect, it is quite good.

The galaxy NGC 4235 seen by astronomers:

  1. Evolution of Quasars into Galaxies and its Implications for the Birth and Evolution of Matter.

M 101

In the Abell cluster, the main galaxy M 101 is the center of symmetry of several alignments of quasars which have also a remarkable symmetry of redshifts, and most of them obey closely to an empirical numerical relation established for several years by Karlsson.

z = 0,06 - 0,30 - 0,60 - 0,96 - 1,41 - 1,96 - 2,64 - 3,48 - etc.

We shall more examine this relation further in QSOs and quantization.


The Controversy :

  1. They are artefacts!
    No! Too many corroborating observations. Made by various observers (Arp, Burbidge, Karlsson, etc.)

  2. Very well, then there is an effect of selection!
    Of course, there is an effect of selection. But this is perfectly justified, in this case. Because what Arp, and others with him, search for, are these alignments which would be systems having very particular physical characteristics.

  3. Let us admit, then they are gravitational lenses!
    Excellent idea, let us have a closer look.

Some Visible Peculiarities of Gravitational Lenses

  1. The Gravitational Lens G2237 0305 (Einstein Cross)







    We shall admit, in spite of the doubts that we expressed elsewhere, that it is indeed a gravitational lens.
    The deflector (quasar) is in the centre, and the lens appears in the form of a four-leaf clover centered on the quasar.

    We can observe that the apparent radius of this lens is of the order of three to four times the radius of the deflector.

  1. The gravitational Lens Abell 2218 is a galaxy cluster which by its mass deflects and amplifiess the light of a distant galaxy.
    We have no reason to doubt the nature of this phenomenon.

    Here also, we can see that the radius of this lens is of the order of three to four times the radius of the deflector object. (Cluster)

    If we observe other lenses, we always find the sames ratios of the radiuses.


The aligned objects have none of the characteristics that would induce us to confuse them with gravitational lenses..

  1. The distance ratios (radius ratios) are too great.

  2. Quasars observed in these configurations never have the shape of arcs of a circle. So the confusion is not possible.

  3. Let us note that Halton Arp always discarded the doubtful configurations.

  4. While some configurations can sometimes correspond to gravitational lenses, there clearly exist a lot which are not.

Hypotheses formulated by Halton Arp
  1. These aligned quasars would be objects ejected by a parent galaxy.

  2. Their redshifts would be associated with their age.

  3. These redshifts would decrease over time to a value corresponding to their distances.

Let us note that Halton Arp does not bring convincing explanation to their redshifts. Maybe it is necessary to call upon hère also a quantum effect (Jacques Moret-Bailly)


  1. Interaction between incoherent light beams propagating in excited atomic hydrogen: applications in astrophysics.

  2. Le Dossier de Jacques Moret Bailly : (General documentation on the Creil effect)

Creation date : 03/03/06
Last release : 11/05/13

Quasars and  Redshifts Quantizations