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Re-examined Kerr Black Hole Cocorico !

Pictures of galaxies and their cores, gotten by Digital Processing, show that the Black Holes are not a myth. But it appears that they don't function strictly according to models elaborated by theoreticians, and therefore that a work of observation and reflection is necessary. Ideas and hypotheses, that we propose here, are only working tracks. It is right to consider them with prudence and open-mindedness therefore.

Bernard Lempel, September 26th, 2001_

Two black hole models have been proposed by theoreticians

  1. The spherical symmetric black hole
    It is this model that, wrongly, is always presented. I won't write about it, because this model has against it two arguments that challenge it definitely. The first is that any massive object (star) that collapses keep inevitably its angular moment, and therefore ends always as a relativistic rotationnal black hole. However, proved to the contrary, there doesn't exist in the universe any stars that don't turn on themselves. And the second is the apparition of a "peculiarity" under the shape of an infinity of density, that is physically unacceptable.

  2. The black hole with symmetrical axis. (Kerr Black Hole)
    This model seems a lot more close to the physical reality. It takes into account the consequences owing to the angular momentum of the star. It describes a plausible relativistic final state. Unfortunately it only describes an inferred final result, but not what really happens during the collapse, and that can considerably modify this final state. On the other hand it doesn't solve, him either, the problem of the "peculiarity" met in the Black Hole with sperical symmetry. These are the reasons that impose to revisit this model.

Comment :

Let us insist on this point, we do not speak here about the " mathematical peculiarity ", but a lot of physical peculiarity.

Kerr Black Hole Revisited, Some Hypothesis. (KBHR)

  1. Collapse..
     During the collapse of a massive star, owing to the conservation of the angular momentum, the angular rotational speed of the star accelerates so that speed at the equator tends toward the maximum speed "C". (light speed # 300.000 km/s)

  1. Inertial effects.

When this maximum speed is reached (O) then one leads to a balance (FR) between the gravitationnal forces (G) and centrifugal forces (FC). The latter tend to increase indefinitely (relativistic function) whereas gravitationnal forces tend to be globally constant since directly linked to mass, and because geometry is limited at best as a sphere.
The collapse is then stopped.
During all the length of the collapse, and outside the equator the physics obeys the classical laws of the mechanics. So the centrifugal force, owed to the inertia, is oriented, since the rotating axis, for the equator. Consequently, matter, all the matter, is projected toward the equator where it accumulates under the shape of a relativistic tore.


In the tore, and solely there, the centrifugal force is oriented inwards. (relativistic effects) We have therefore in the tore a confinement effect. Let's note that matter is then under shape of à very high-density plasma of particles. (Neutrons, protons, electrons, etc.) But one notices that this model doesn't imply that the density is infinite.

We have just seen that the inertia has a very big role to play at the time of the formation of the KBHR. But its role doesn't stop there. The inertia is directly linked with mass. And the moment of inertia is linked directly to the angular rotational speed of the tore. It implies that the more massive the black hole, the more it behaves like an absolute inertial flatform. Its rotating axis cannot change in any significant way during the time. It is a "quasi-perfect" relativistic gyroscope. In the future one would be able to perfectly use this property of hyper-massive black holes situated in certain galaxy cores as references to map the universe. (M 87 for example).

The inertial moment is such, that all "attempt" to modify it is doomed to failure. So the accretion of matter by a star entails inevitably the ejection of an equivalent mass  from the KBHR. If it were not the case, the KBHR would explode. That is all the more true when the ratio of momentums of inertias between the black hole and the star is bigger. Let's note that, in this case, this ejection can only take place in its plane of rotation. This property implies that KBHR are completely stabilized objects and that their mass is invariant as soon as their equator achieves the speed limit.

  1. Magnetic fields.


We saw that the KBHR presents himself under the shape of a plasma core in relativistic rotation and made of very high-density particles. If some of the these particles are charged, then one can assimilate this tore as a superconductor submitted to a huge electric current because amplified according to the relation :

 The plan of the tore is therefore crossed by an extremely intense magnetic field. But attention, it is not the charged particles that circulate in matter, it is the tore, in other words it is the material support, that is in rotation and that carries with it the charged particles.


The result of this feature is that the magnetic field is also in relativistic rotation, in relation to its axis. Field lines of the magnetic field cross the plan of rotation of the KBHR with an external radius greater than that of the equator of the tore (Black Hole). The diagram, opposite, shows the path of one of these field lines.


Because of the limitation of the maximum speeds achieved, the difference of angular rotation(difference of phase), between a point situated on the equator of the KBHR and a point situated on a field line in the same plan, is roughly equal to:

The effect, at the level of the rotation plane, is a distortion of each field line proportional to this difference of phase. This effect is cumulative, during the rotating of the KBHR. So, when the accrued phase reaches :


i.e. complete relative rotation, then one has recombination of every initial strength line under shape of two resulting field lines in the plane of rotation. Fragments of initial axi-polar field lines recombine themselves also. The process continues then indefinitely and the final result is the obtaining of a toric magnetic field in the plan of rotation of the KBHR. That is quite equivalent to a Tokamak, even though it is not gotten in the same way as the one that is used by physicists to get fusion energy a certain day. This magnetic field, together with an electric field, are able to eject from the KBHR the charged particles (Protons and electrons) and to accumulate them, under shape of a ionized plasma in the magnetic tore, which is then self maintained by these particles. Notice that, on the one hand, gravitation has no known direct effect on the magnetic field, and, on the other hand that, on the atomic scale, gravitation is a weak strength as compared with the electromagnetic strength.

  1. Toric magnetic field linked to a dipolar magnetic field.
Source: B. Lempel

It can occur that, the magnetic environment of a KBHR is influenced by the magnetic field of an object as a black hole, a magnetar, or a neutron star. According to the situation these linked fields can be toric or dipolar. The recombination, in the intermediate space, of field lines allows a collimated magnetic field to form. This property is an essential condition for the formation of the axi-planar jets of the type of the one that has been put in evidence, elsewhere, in the galaxy M 87.

  1. Ejection of matter.
    One saw that because of its invariance of mass the KBHR is able to eject matter, in its plane of rotation. But this matter can only be constituted of neutrons, which bombard the tore of plasma, with all the ensuing physical consequence. If the temperature of plasma is lower than 2 MeV, the nuclear processes, which occur allows the particles to recombine together and the result is Permanent Primordial Nucleosynthesis.

  1. Observations:


The picture of the core of the galaxy M 87 gotten by Digital Processing of the photograph made by the ESO at the VLT is maybe a good indication that the considered hypotheses correspond to reality. Let's note that the spreading of the tore of plasma is the image of the spreading of the field lines in the plane of rotation of the KBHR.

  1. Mechanisms of accretion. Other Hypotheses.

A KBHR is an object whose mass is several solar masses. After its birth one can consider two cases.

  • If it was born in an environment poor of matter, the KBHR will remain as is for an indeterminate length.

  • On the other hand if it was born in a rich in matter, gases and stars environment, then a mechanism of matter accretion is started toward the KBHR. But because of its invariance of mass the same amount of mass is ejected. This accretion/ejection increases the global mass of the system. Therefore increasingly matter is accreted. And increasingly mass ejected. We thus have a real self-inducted avalanche phenomenon. It is a systemic phenomenon with positive feedback. Once the phenomenon begins, it can never stop. The only limitation is the global quantity of available matter. It is this mechanism that permits the recycling of matter, it is therefore everlasting. An extremely simple question appears then: Where is the main part of the mass of the KBHR ?


  1. Only in the toric Black Hole ?

  2. In the accreted matter ?

  3. In the ejected matter ?

  4. In the tore of plasma ?

The answer is simple. The mass is distributed on the whole of the these elements. Proportions are surprising. More than 99% of the mass, is distributed between matter in accretion and matter in ejection. The KBHR is only the priming of the self-inducted avalanche phenomenon. As soon as the phenomenon is started, if one suppressed the black Hole, the phenomenon would continue nevertheless, because the isolated mass of the black hole is negligible in front of the acreted/ejected matter.


Maybe galaxies are born this way. Moreover nothing prohibits that the black hole, initiator of the phenomenon from beeing ejected from its central position also that the black hole may not be the mass orbiting around the mass being accreted. Or also, that the black hole may be caught in a high -energy jet coming from the center of the galaxy, as shown in the treated general view of M 87.


  1. Magnetism is able to generate mustaches " around a KBHR.

  2. Magnetism permits the ejection of the charged matter. The balance of masses is not negligible!

  3. The inertia, under its centrifugal force demonstration, permits the ejection of matter out a KBHR (Neutrons).

  4. Hyper massive Black Holes are self-regulated systems. If matter is accreted, then the same quantity of matter is ejected.

  5. The Black Holes are system interacting with their environment. We cannot consider them as isolated objects.

  6. The KBHRs of galaxy cores are self-maintened avalanche systems.

  7. The KBHRs are matter recycling factories. They provide the permanent "primordial" nucleosynthesis.

Intensities of some known or supposed known Magnetic fields :

Source: ESO

Magnetar (Source ESO) 


Intensities (Gauss)



Common permanent magnet


Permanent most intense (Laboratory)


Ephemeral the most intensive (Laboratoiry)


The most intensive in an ordinary star


Typical in a radio pulsar


Typical in a Magnetar


Black Hole

³ 1020 ?


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