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A Gravitationnal Lens Snag, The Einstein Cross Cocorico !

The first time that one showed us a gravitational lens, it was the Einstein Cross. We were impressed by the greatness and the quasi metaphysical meaning of this phenomenon. Then one showed us many others. Abell 2218 is certainly among one of the most extraordinary spectacles that the universe shows us. But let's look this famous cross together.


Here is this object as it was showed me the first time. Source : HST.

We felt no doubt then on the nature of this object. Even though...


...Even though Jean-Claude Pecker, in the French magazine Science & Vie (special N° 189), "Les Pansements d'un Big bang fatigué" (bandage of a tired big bang) expresses some skepticism.
It's true that one should observe what the recent picture of the ESO shows us, here, some arcs.

IQ 2237+0305


In the night of the 10/04/1999, the 3.5 meters WIYN telescope (NOAO) takes this photograph.
It shows that the gravitational lens is centered in the core of a spiral galaxy.
This particularity attracts our attention.


Then the question that come to the fore is this one: How can the weak light, of a faraway gravitational lens, cross over the opaque "central" area of a galaxy_?
To try to settle the issue, We submit this photo to the "Torture".

Here is the result, on the left:

Fig. 1

What does the theory says ?

  • The core of the galaxy, on the foreground, is the gravitational source permitting a faraway object (quasar) to appear to us under the shape of a gravitational lens. Then It is necessary that the galactic plane be sufficiently transparent so that the lens can appear very near the core. (Fig. 1)

  • It is a massive object, masked by the galaxy, that is the gravitational source, which enables the lens to appear. (Fig. 2). The objection is the same as in the first case.

  • The lens effect is not only caused by the core of the galaxy, but also by the mass of the galaxy. But the objection becomes even stronger: The greater the global mass of the galaxy, the more its "opacity" increases. To solve this difficulty, then it is necessary to invoke a transparent and therefore invisible hidden mass.

To know more on Gravitationnal Lensing.

  • Other gravitationnal Lenses

  1. Quasar PG1115+080 (HST)

  2. Gravitational Lens PG1115+080 (Subaru)

  3. Gravitational Lenses PRC95-43 (HST)

  4. Cluster of Galaxies Abell 2218 (HST)

Fig. 2

What the theory doesn't say ?

  • Certainly, the light of a faraway object can cross a galactic plane. There are some examples in the milky way. But, to our knowledge, never through its core.

  • The object, only resembles a gravitational lens. It is something else. But what?

  • Hypothesis 1: it is the core of the visible galaxy on pictures. But it is a multiple core.

  • Alternative: It is the multiple picture of the unique core of this galaxy.

  • Hypothesis 2: The observed effect would be provoked by an effect of refractivity in one or more  bubbles of gas with gradient of density, linked to the mass of the core of the galaxy, and therefore with a gradient of refractive index. (Kerr Optical effect). These bubbles could be in expansion.

What must be explained:

  • The density of one or several bubbles of plasma, close to a core of galaxy can it be sufficient to permit the considered refraction effect ?

  • The respective redshift of the different parts of this core (z=1.695) and this galaxy (z=0.0394), would require to search for a K effect, as it is evoked by Halton Arp. The expansion of these bubbles, could also explain these redshifts, especially if they are the seat of magnetic fields, and submissive to a fast cooling. Some Maser  or Laser phenomena (optic amplification) are also possible.


The density and the gradient of matter density (gas) in cores of galaxies would be great enough to  cause refractive and detectable effects.

GAIA and Einstein Cross  §
Einstein Cross
Croix D'Einstein et GAIA
April 2016, in N° 93 of Astronomie journal (SAF), is published an article "GAIA" two years at L2" (Catherine Turon & Frédéric Arenou) in which is presented an image of the Einstein Cross made by the HST, which were overlaid with measurements obtained by GAIA. According to the authors, the detections made by GAIA overlap perfectly with the image of the HST.
We discover that this image is contained in the following sites:

Gaia et la croix d'Einstein. (Paris-Meudon Observatory)
Gaia honours Einstein by observing his Cross. (ESA "Image of the week (09/04/2015).

A click on the image below, display a larger picture.

Most mistakes in philosophy and logic occur because of human mind is apt to take the symbol for the reality.    (Albert Einstein, Cosmic Religion, 1931)


Approximately Created in 2005
Last release: 10/07/18

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